Tag Archives: API RP

API RP 940

Steel Deterioration in Hydrogen: A Report on Corrosion Research

Published by: 1967-11-16 / 1967-11-16
This recommended practice summarizes the results of experimental tests and actual data acquired from operating plants to establish practical operating limits for carbon and low alloy steels in hydrogen service at elevated temperatures and pressures. The effects on the resistance of steels to hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure that result from high stress, heat treating, chemical composition, and cladding are discussed. This recommended practice does not address the resistance of steels to hydrogen at lower temperatures [below about 400 °F (204 °C)], where atomic hydrogen enters the steel as a result of an electrochemical mechanism.

This recommended practice applies to equipment in refineries, petrochemical facilities, and chemical facilities in which hydrogen or hydrogen-containing fluids are processed at elevated temperature and pressure. The guidelines in this recommended practice can also be applied to hydrogenation plants such as those that manufacture ammonia, methanol, edible oils, and higher alcohols.

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API RP 572

Inspection of Pressure Vessels, Fourth Edition

Published by: 2016-12-01 / 2016-12-01 / 154 pages
This recommended practice (RP) supplements API 510 by providing pressure vessel inspectors with information that can improve skills and increase basic knowledge of inspection practices. This RP describes inspection practices for the various types of pressure vessels (e.g. drums, heat exchangers, columns, reactors, air coolers, spheres) used in petroleum refineries and chemical plants.

This RP addresses vessel components, inspection planning processes, inspection intervals, methods of inspection and assessment, methods of repair, records and reports. API 510 has requirements and expectations for inspection of pressure vessels.

A pressure vessel is a container designed to withstand internal or external pressure. The pressure vessels may have been constructed in accordance with ASME BPVC Section VIII, other recognized pressure vessel codes, or as approved by the jurisdiction. These codes typically limit design basis to an external or internal design pressure no less than 15 lbf/in.² (103 kPa). However, this RP also includes vessels that operate at lower pressures.

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API RP 1167

Pipeline SCADA Alarm Management, Second Edition

Published by: 2016-06-01 / 2016-06-01 / 39 pages
This document is intended to provide pipeline operators with recommended industry practices in the development, implementation, and maintenance of an alarm management program. It provides guidance on elements that include, but are not limited to, alarm definition, philosophy, documentation, management of change, and auditing.

This document is not intended to be a step-by-step set of instructions on how to build an alarm management system. Each pipeline operator has a unique operating philosophy and will therefore have a unique alarm philosophy as well. This document is intended to outline key elements for review when building an alarm management system.

SCADA systems used within the pipeline industry vary in their alarm-related capabilities. There are also many different software systems available to aid in alarm management. It is the responsibility of the pipeline operator to determine the best method to achieve their alarm management goals.
This document uses industry best practices to help to illustrate aspects of alarm management. The scope is intended to be broad.

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API RP 551

Process Measurement, Second Edition

Published by: 2016-02-01 / 2016-02-01 / 233 pages
This document provides recommendations about the selection and design of process measurement systems. Further, it supplies information on their implementation and commissioning.

It covers the instrumentation life cycle including selection, design, installation, commissioning and operation. It is pertinent to those involved with instrument application including design firms, owner/operators, equipment package suppliers/integrators, construction and service personnel, as well as instrument manufacturers.

Instrument systems are often a compromise between the installed performance and maintainability. A system has to balance these requirements while ensuring that basic principles are upheld. This document assists in the understanding of these principals and making proper decisions.

This recommended practice is intended to be a source of good engineering practice. Its recommendations are practical and safe, which yield consistent and effective results.

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Application Care, and use of Wire Rope for Oil Field Service, Fourteenth Edition

Published by: 2015-10-01 / 2015-10-01 / 44 pages
This recommended practice (RP) covers typical wire rope applications for the oil and gas industry.

Typical practices in the application of wire rope to oil field service are indicated in Table 1, which shows the sizes and constructions commonly used. Because of the variety of equipment designs, the selection of constructions other than those shown is justifiable.

In oilfield service, wire rope is often referred to as wire line or cable. For the purpose of clarity, these various expressions are incorporated in this recommended practice.

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Recommended Practice for the Design, Testing, and Operation of Subsea Multiphase Flow Meters, First Edition

Published by: American Petroleum Institute / 2015-06-01 / 32 pages
This document provides recommendations for the sizing, specification, system integration, and testing of subsea flow meters [referred to as multiphase flow meters (MPFMs)] for measurement of full stream, multiphase flow. In subsea applications, MPFMs are normally used in well testing, allocation measurement, fiscal measurement, well management, and/or in flow assurance applications. The categorization of MPFM application is important since it can be used to determine the required level of factory testing, independent verification, field maintenance, and ongoing verification required during operation. This Recommended Practice (RP) includes wet gas flow meters as a subset of MPFMs. In-line MPFMs are typically used in subsea applications and are the focus of this RP. These recommendations and guidelines are intended for use by the engineer responsible for the delivery of the MPFM.

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Design, Operation, and Troubleshooting of Dual Gas-lift Wells, Second Edition

Published by: American Petroleum Institute / 2015-04-01 / 98 pages
This document provides recommended practices (RPs) for the selection, design, operation, surveillance, optimization, automation, and troubleshooting of dual gas-lift wells.

The purpose of this document is to present RPs, guidelines, and tools to help obtain optimum production from dual gas-lift wells. This document also contains practices that should be avoided to minimize problems and inefficiencies that can be associated with ineffective dual gas-lift operations. Compared to single completions, dual completions typically have more operating problems, are more difficult to work over, and can produce less efficiently.

It is not the purpose of this document to recommend the practice of dual gas-lift. In some cases, dual gas-lift is problematic and often ineffective. Often it is difficult or even impossible to effectively produce both completions in a dual well using gas-lift over the long term. Where there are other feasible alternatives to produce dual wells, they should be considered. However, many dually completed oil wells should be artificially lifted initially or after reservoir pressures have declined and/or water cuts have increased. In many cases, the only practical method of artificial lift for these wells is gas-lift. Therefore, every effort should be made to design and operate dual gas-lift systems as effectively as possible.

Annexes to this RP include:

a) an overview of dual gas-lift systems,
b) dual gas-lift mandrel spacing designs,
c) dual gas-lift unloading valve design for production pressure operated (PPO) valves, and
d) dual gas-lift practices not recommended.

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Planning, Designing and Constructing Structures and Pipelines for Arctic Conditions, Third Edition

Published by: American Petroleum Institute / 2015-04-01 / 472 pages
This standard specifies requirements and provides recommendations and guidance for the design, construction, transportation, installation, and removal of offshore structures, related to the activities of the petroleum and natural gas industries in arctic and cold regions. Reference to arctic and cold regions in this standard is deemed to include both the arctic and other cold regions that are subject to similar sea ice, iceberg, and icing conditions. The objective of this standard is to ensure that offshore structures in arctic and cold regions provide an appropriate level of reliability with respect to personnel safety, environmental protection, and asset value to the owner, to the industry, and to society in general.

This standard does not contain requirements for the operation, maintenance, service-life inspection, or repair of arctic and cold region offshore structures, except where the design strategy imposes specific requirements (e.g. 17.2.2).

While this standard does not apply specifically to mobile offshore drilling units (see ISO 19905 1), the procedures relating to ice actions and ice management contained herein are applicable to the assessment of such units.

This standard does not apply to mechanical, process, and electrical equipment or any specialized process equipment associated with arctic and cold region offshore operations except in so far as it is necessary for the structure to sustain safely the actions imposed by the installation, housing, and operation of such equipment.

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Recommended Practice for Analysis, Design, Installation, and Testing of Safety Systems for Subsea Applications, First Edition

Published by: American Petroleum Institute / 2015-03-01 / 63 pages
This RP presents recommendations for designing, installing, and testing a process safety system for subsea applications. The basic concepts of subsea safety systems are discussed and protection methods and requirements of the system are outlined.

For the purposes of this RP, ‘subsea system’ includes all process components from the wellhead (and surface controlled subsurface safety valve [SCSSV]) to upstream of the boarding shutdown valve. For gas injection, water injection, and gas lift systems, the shutdown valve is within the scope of API 17V. This also includes the chemical injection system.

Subsea systems within the scope of this document include:

  • subsea trees (production and injection), flowlines, and SCSSVs;
  • chemical injection lines;
  • manifolds;
  • subsea separation;
  • subsea boosting;
  • subsea compression;
  • flowlines;
  • gas lift;
  • high integrity pressure protection system (HIPPS);
  • subsea isolation valves;
  • risers;
  • hydraulic power unit.

The safety system includes valves and flow control devices in the production system. The safety system also includes sensors installed in the production system to detect abnormal conditions and allow corrective action to be taken (whether manual or automatic).

The intention is to design subsea safety systems to meet the requirements of IEC 61511; this document supplements these requirements.

Procedures for testing common safety devices are presented with recommendations for test data, test frequency, and acceptable test tolerances.

Instrumentation logic circuits are not discussed since these should be left to the discretion of the designer as long as the recommended safety functions are accomplished. Rotating machinery is considered in this RP as a unitized process component as it interfaces with the subsea safety system. When rotating machinery (such as a pump or compressor) is installed as a unit consisting of several process components, each component may be analyzed as prescribed in this RP.

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API RP 651

Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks, Fourth Edition

Published by: American Petroleum Institute / 2014-09-01
The purpose of this recommended practice (RP) is to present procedures and practices for achieving effective corrosion control on aboveground storage tank bottoms through the use of cathodic protection. This RP contains provisions for the application of cathodic protection to existing and new aboveground storage tanks. Corrosion control methods based on chemical control of the environment or the use of protective coatings are not covered in detail.

When cathodic protection is used for aboveground storage tank applications, it is the intent of this RP to provide information and guidance specific to aboveground metallic storage tanks in hydrocarbon service. Certain practices recommended herein may also be applicable to tanks in other services. It is intended to serve only as a guide to persons interested in cathodic protection. Specific cathodic protection designs are not provided. Such designs should be developed by a person thoroughly familiar with cathodic protection practices for aboveground petroleum storage tanks.

This RP does not designate specific practices for every situation because the varied conditions in which tank bottoms are installed preclude standardization of cathodic protection practices.

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